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Table 1 Description of guidelines and requirements

From: Teaching: the role of active manipulation of three-dimensional scatter plots in understanding the concept of confounding

Guidelines. Requirements for the 3D LOs Evaluation by
Based on subject matter and learning goals
Use rotatable 3D plots. - Students and experts perceive the 3D LOs as a valuable addition to the textbook. Students and Experts
Integrate the conceptual and empirical aspect of confounding. - Teachers confirm that the 3D LOs support the learning goals for confounding. Experts
  - Experts in epidemiology confirm that the 3D LOs apply accepted scientific views on confounding. Experts
  - Experts in epidemiology confirm that it is useful to use the 3D LOs in addition to epidemiological textbooks and lectures. Experts
  - 80% of the students are able to answer exam questions (which integrate the conceptual and empirical approach) correctly. Evaluation of exams
Based on learning and instruction theories
Actively engage the students [26]. - Students feel that the elements in the 3D LOs that require them to become active learners help them to understand confounding. Students
Visualize important concepts. [10,11]. - Students perceive the plots in the 3D LOs as a valuable addition to the textbook. Students
  - Students feel that actively manipulating the 3D plots helps them to understand confounding. Students
Motivate the students (based on ARCS model [27]): the LOs should: - Students feel that the elements that require them to become active learners motivate them to study. Students
- capture the Attention of the student, - Students judge the material with at least a 4 (on a five-point scale). Students
- be received as Relevant - Students feel they learned from the 3D LOs. Students
- induce Confidence and Satisfaction by students. - The student is able to solve the exercises. Students