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  1. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    Causal inference requires an understanding of the conditions under which association equals causation. The exchangeability or no confounding assumption is well known and well understood as central to this task...

    Authors: Sharon Schwartz, Nicolle M Gatto and Ulka B Campbell

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2012 9:3

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  2. Content type: Methodology

    The Integrated Health Interview Series (IHIS) is a public data repository that harmonizes four decades of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is the premier source of information on the healt...

    Authors: Mike Davern, Lynn A Blewett, Brian Lee, Michel Boudreaux and Miriam L King

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2012 9:2

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  3. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    The past five years have seen a growth in the interest in systems approaches in epidemiologic research. These approaches may be particularly appropriate for social epidemiology. Social network analysis and age...

    Authors: Abdulrahman M El-Sayed, Peter Scarborough, Lars Seemann and Sandro Galea

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2012 9:1

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  4. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    In molecular epidemiology studies biospecimen data are collected, often with the purpose of evaluating the synergistic role between a biomarker and another feature on an outcome. Typically, biomarker data are ...

    Authors: Manisha Desai, Denise A Esserman, Marilie D Gammon and Mary B Terry

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2011 8:5

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  5. Content type: Commentary

    This commentary intends to instigate discussions about epidemiologic estimates and their interpretation of attributable fractions (AFs) and the burden of disease (BOD) of cancers due to factors at workplaces. ...

    Authors: Thomas C Erren and Peter Morfeld

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2011 8:4

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  6. Content type: Methodology

    Adherence to a medical treatment means the extent to which a patient follows the instructions or recommendations by health professionals. There are direct and indirect ways to measure adherence which have been...

    Authors: Sylvia Kiwuwa-Muyingo, Hannu Oja, Sarah A Walker, Pauliina Ilmonen, Jonathan Levin and Jim Todd

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2011 8:3

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  7. Content type: Research

    Standard logistic regression with or without stepwise selection has the disadvantage of not incorporating model uncertainty and the dependency of estimates on the underlying model into the final inference. We ...

    Authors: Nadine Stephenson, Lars Beckmann and Jenny Chang-Claude

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2010 7:10

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  8. Content type: Research

    Reports of observational epidemiological studies often categorise (group) continuous risk factor (exposure) variables. However, there has been little systematic assessment of how categorisation is practiced or...

    Authors: Elizabeth L Turner, Joanna E Dobson and Stuart J Pocock

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2010 7:9

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  9. Content type: Methodology

    The purpose of this paper was to compare two mathematical procedures to estimate the annual attributable number of deaths (the Allison et al procedure and the Mokdad et al procedure), and derive a new procedur...

    Authors: Bernard CK Choi

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2010 7:8

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  10. Content type: Commentary

    A person can experience an effect on the occurrence of an outcome in a defined follow-up period without experiencing an effect on the risk of that outcome over the same period. Sufficient causes are sometimes ...

    Authors: Charles Poole

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2010 7:6

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  11. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    Sufficient causes of disease are redundant when an individual acquires the components of two or more sufficient causes. In this circumstance, the individual still would have become diseased even if one of the ...

    Authors: Nicolle M Gatto and Ulka B Campbell

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2010 7:5

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  12. Content type: Methodology

    This paper describes how to fit an additive Poisson model using standard software. It is illustrated with SAS code, but can be similarly used for other software packages.

    Authors: Hendriek C Boshuizen and Edith JM Feskens

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2010 7:4

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  13. Content type: Research

    Schistosomiasis infection, contracted through contact with contaminated water, is a global public health concern. In this paper we analyze data from a retrospective study reporting water contact and schistosom...

    Authors: Sylvia EK Sudat, Elizabeth J Carlton, Edmund YW Seto, Robert C Spear and Alan E Hubbard

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2010 7:3

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  14. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    Identifying diet-disease relationships in nutritional cohort studies is plagued by the measurement error in self-reported intakes.

    Authors: Laurence S Freedman, Victor Kipnis, Arthur Schatzkin, Nataša Tasevska and Nancy Potischman

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2010 7:2

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  15. Content type: Methodology

    In epidemiologic studies, cancer stage is an important predictor of outcomes. However, cancer stage is typically unavailable in medical insurance claims datasets, thus limiting the usefulness of such data for ...

    Authors: Grace L Smith, Ya-Chen T Shih, Sharon H Giordano, Benjamin D Smith and Thomas A Buchholz

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2010 7:1

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  16. Content type: Methodology

    Regression adjustment for the propensity score is a statistical method that reduces confounding from measured variables in observational data. A Bayesian propensity score analysis extends this idea by using si...

    Authors: Lawrence C McCandless, Paul Gustafson, Peter C Austin and Adrian R Levy

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2009 6:5

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  17. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    In 1986 the International Journal of Epidemiology published "Identifiability, Exchangeability and Epidemiological Confounding". We review the article from the perspective of a quarter century after it was firs...

    Authors: Sander Greenland and James M Robins

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2009 6:4

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  18. Content type: Methodology

    One possibility for the statistical evaluation of trends in epidemiological exposure studies is the use of a trend test for data organized in a 2 × k contingency table. Commonly, the exposure data are naturally g...

    Authors: Ludwig A Hothorn, Michael Vaeth and Torsten Hothorn

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2009 6:1

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  19. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, nationwide, household interview survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. This annual survey is conducted by the ...

    Authors: Cathy L Backinger, Deirdre Lawrence, Judith Swan, Deborah M Winn, Nancy Breen, Anne Hartman, Rachel Grana, David Tran and Samantha Farrell

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2008 5:8

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  20. Content type: Research

    Case-control studies and outbreak investigations are the major epidemiological tools for providing detailed information on enteric disease sources and risk factors, but these investigations can be constrained ...

    Authors: Nick Wilson, Michael Baker, Richard Edwards and Greg Simmons

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2008 5:6

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  21. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    The two-phase design consists of an initial (Phase One) study with known disease status and inexpensive covariate information. Within this initial study one selects a subsample on which to collect detailed cov...

    Authors: Pascal Wild, Nadine Andrieu, Alisa M Goldstein and Walter Schill

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2008 5:4

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  22. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    Adjustment for covariates (also called auxiliary variables in survey sampling literature) is commonly applied in health surveys to reduce the variances of the prevalence estimators. In theory, adjusted prevale...

    Authors: Wenjun Li, Edward J Stanek III and Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2008 5:2

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  23. Content type: Methodology

    A goal in intimate partner violence (IPV) research is to identify victims when they are treated in a hospital Emergency Department (ED) and predict which patients will sustain abuse again after discharge, so i...

    Authors: Douglas J Wiebe, Brendan G Carr, Elizabeth M Datner, Michael R Elliott and Therese S Richmond

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2008 5:1

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  24. Content type: Methodology

    A growing body of health and policy research suggests residential neighborhood density and street connectivity affect walking and total physical activity, both of which are important risk factors for obesity a...

    Authors: J Michael Oakes, Ann Forsyth and Kathryn H Schmitz

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2007 4:16

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  25. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    When carefully planned and analysed, the case-cohort design is a powerful choice for follow-up studies with multiple event types of interest. While the literature is rich with analysis methods for case-cohort ...

    Authors: Sangita Kulathinal, Juha Karvanen, Olli Saarela and Kari Kuulasmaa

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2007 4:15

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  26. Content type: Research

    Although research has found that childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with physical and mental health in mid- and later life, most of these studies used conventional, single dimension SES measure...

    Authors: Irene H Yen, Anita L Stewart, Teresa Scherzer and Eliseo J Pérez-Stable

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2007 4:14

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  27. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    While chronic exposure to secondhand smoke has been well recognized as a cause of heart disease in nonsmokers, there has been recent speculation about the potential acute cardiovascular effects of transient ex...

    Authors: Michael Siegel

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2007 4:12

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  28. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    Epidemiologic studies have identified a number of lifestyle factors, e.g. diet, obesity, and use of certain medications, which affect risk of colon cancer. However, the magnitude and significance of risk facto...

    Authors: Martha L Slattery, Maureen A Murtaugh, Charles Quesenberry, Bette J Caan, Sandra Edwards and Carol Sweeney

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2007 4:10

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  29. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    We suggest that the need to account for systematic error may explain the apparent lack of agreement among studies of maternal dietary methylmercury exposure and neuropsychological testing outcomes in children,...

    Authors: Michael Goodman, Leila M Barraj, Pamela J Mink, Nicole L Britton, Janice W Yager, W Dana Flanders and Michael A Kelsh

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2007 4:9

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  30. Content type: Methodology

    Longitudinal studies are helpful in understanding how subtle associations between factors of interest change over time. Our goal is to apply statistical methods which are appropriate for analyzing longitudinal...

    Authors: Mariel M Finucane, Jeffrey H Samet and Nicholas J Horton

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2007 4:8

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  31. Content type: Research

    Little is known about the characteristics of people who do and do not agree to the long-term storage and use of their biological materials, or about potential biases that may be introduced as a result of diffe...

    Authors: Joan Cunningham and Terry Dunbar

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2007 4:7

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  32. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    Population estimates are generally drawn from one point in time to study disease trends over time; changes in population characteristics over time are usually not assessed and included in the study design. We ...

    Authors: Ping Du, F Bruce Coles, Patricia O'Campo and Louise-Anne McNutt

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2007 4:6

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  33. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    Long term studies of childhood cancer survivors are hampered by difficulties in tracking young adult participants. After performing a National Death Index (NDI) search we sought to identify which factors best ...

    Authors: Cecilia A Cotton, Susan Peterson, Patricia A Norkool and Norman E Breslow

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2007 4:5

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  34. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    This paper critically discusses two previous studies concerned with predictions of HIV/AIDS in the United States and Japan during the early 1990s. Although the study in the US applied a historical theory, assu...

    Authors: Hiroshi Nishiura

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2007 4:3

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  35. Content type: Analytic Perspective

    To examine the generalizability of two National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials in patients with chronic Lyme disease and to determine whether selec...

    Authors: Daniel J Cameron

    Citation: Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations 2006 3:12

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